General

ID:
-BAG
Entry type:
TV series
Genres:
Documentary
Countries:
UK
Languages:
English
Length:
50 min

Summary

No summary available

Additional information

    No known aliases

Episodes

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - Pilot

    Horizon follows an un-named biologist as he researches genetics in his lab.
  • Horizon: Episode 2 - The World of Buckminster Fuller

    Horizon follows the work of R. Buckminster Fuller and his research of the geodesic dome.
  • Horizon: Episode 3 - Pesticides and Posterity

    Dr Frank Darling and Dr Eric Edson discuss different environmental priorities.
  • Horizon: Episode 4 - A Candle to Nature

    A reconstruction of a Michael Faraday lecture last given in December 1860.
  • Horizon: Episode 5 - Strangeness Minus Three

    Horizon explors the findings of physicists at Brookhaven, Long Island, New York. Who, after two years and thousands of photographs, have identified a predicted new particle which has a unique characteristic: 'strangeness minus three'.
  • Horizon: Episode 6 - The Air of Science

    Horizon looks at the work of the National Institute for Medical Research.
  • Horizon: Episode 7 - The Knowledge Explosion

    Prof. Arthur C. Clarke, Derek Price and Nigel Balchin discuss the past and future of science.
  • Horizon: Episode 8 - Tots and Quots and Woodgerie

    Horizon investigates the 'Tots and Quots' and the 'Woodgeries' two groups set up by scientists before the second world war to discuss the future of science and how it effects society.
  • Horizon: Episode 9 - Professor J.B.S.Haldane, Obituary

    This programme consists entirley of Professor Haldane seated in an armchair talking about his work and other scientists.
  • Horizon: Episode 10 - Science, Toys and Magic

    Dr. John Napier introduces a programme on the value of scientific toys and tricks performed by a magician which can also be performed using different forms of scientific theory.
  • Horizon: Episode 1 - Learning From Machines

    Horizon looks into the principles behind machines and investigates why they are so successful.
  • Horizon: Episode 2 - The Technique of Change

    Horizon profiles the Bell Laboratories in the United States. They are one of the most important research & development centres where 4000 scientists work with a budget of 100m pounds every year. Horizon investigates the possibility of setting up a similar place in Britain.
  • Horizon: Episode 3 - Star Gazers

  • Horizon: Episode 4 - Science and Art

  • Horizon: Episode 5 - The Great Computer Scandal

  • Horizon: Episode 6 - 17 March 1965

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - 02 January 1966

  • Horizon: Episode 2 - 16 January 1966

    Horizon explores an American mental hospital, observing schizophrenic patients under treatment with remarkable new drugs. Also includes a report on the meeting of the AAAS in Berkeley, California between Christmasmas & New Year.
  • Horizon: Episode 1 - Sons of Cain

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - Season 5

  • Horizon: Episode 2 - How to make better decisions

  • Horizon: Episode 3 - How to live to 101

  • Horizon: Episode 4 - Prof. Regan's supermarket secrets

  • Horizon: Episode 5 - Are we Alone in the Universe?

  • Horizon: Episode 6 - How Much is Your Dead Body Worth?

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - Season 6

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - Season 7

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - Season 8

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - Rail Crash

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - Season 10

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - Season 11

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - Season 12

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - Season 13

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - Season 14

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - Now the chips are down

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - Season 16

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - Season 17

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - The Pleasure Of Finding Things Out

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - Vintage Grand Prix Cars

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - Season 20

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - Moonwalk

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - Season 22

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - Season 23

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - The Quest for Tannu Tuva

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - Black Schizophrenia

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - The Company of Ants and Bees

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - Season 27

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - The Shadow Of Breast Cancer

  • Horizon: Episode 2 - Pest Wars

  • Horizon: Episode 3 - Molecules With Sunglasses

  • Horizon: Episode 4 - In Search Of The Noble Savage

  • Horizon: Episode 5 - Malaria, Battle Of The Merozoites

  • Horizon: Episode 6 - The Black Sun

  • Horizon: Episode 7 - Hitler's Bomb

  • Horizon: Episode 8 - An Expensive Theology

  • Horizon: Episode 9 - The Strange Life And Death Of Dr Turing

  • Horizon: Episode 10 - Hot Jam In The Doughnut

  • Horizon: Episode 11 - Diet For A Lifetime

  • Horizon: Episode 12 - Before Babel

  • Horizon: Episode 13 - The Man Who Moved The Mountains

  • Horizon: Episode 14 - Iceman

  • Horizon: Episode 15 - Taking The Credit

  • Horizon: Episode 16 - Fast Life In The Food Chain

  • Horizon: Episode 17 - Dodging Doomsday

  • Horizon: Episode 18 - A Question Of Sport...

  • Horizon: Episode 19 - Genes R Us

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - The Truth About Sex

  • Horizon: Episode 2 - Awakening The Frozen Addicts

  • Horizon: Episode 3 - Cheating Time

  • Horizon: Episode 4 - TB, The Forgotten Plague

  • Horizon: Episode 5 - No Ordinary Genius, Episode 1

  • Horizon: Episode 6 - No Ordinary Genius, Episode 2

  • Horizon: Episode 7 - Mars Alive

  • Horizon: Episode 8 - Suggers, Fruggers And Data-Muggers

  • Horizon: Episode 9 - The Pyramid Builders

  • Horizon: Episode 10 - Here Be Monsters

  • Horizon: Episode 11 - Iceman

  • Horizon: Episode 12 - Whatever Happened To Star Wars?

  • Horizon: Episode 13 - Resurrecting The Dead Sea Scrolls

  • Horizon: Episode 14 - Dante Goes To Hell

  • Horizon: Episode 15 - Ghosts In The Dinosaur Graveyard

  • Horizon: Episode 16 - The New Alchemists

  • Horizon: Episode 17 - Allergic To The Twentieth Century

  • Horizon: Episode 18 - Wot U Lookin At?

  • Horizon: Episode 19 - The Electronic Frontier

  • Horizon: Episode 20 - A Vital Poison

  • Horizon: Episode 21 - Chimp Talk

  • Horizon: Episode 22 - Life Is Impossible

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - Small Arms, Soft Targets

  • Horizon: Episode 2 - The Last Mammoth

  • Horizon: Episode 3 - The Man Who Made Up His Mind

  • Horizon: Episode 4 - Genie, Secret Of The Wild Child

  • Horizon: Episode 5 - Death Wish, The Untold Story

  • Horizon: Episode 6 - Air Crash, The Deadly Puzzle

  • Horizon: Episode 7 - Hunt For The Doomsday Asteroid

  • Horizon: Episode 8 - Hubble Vision

  • Horizon: Episode 9 - Some Liked It Hot

  • Horizon: Episode 10 - Too Close To The Sun

  • Horizon: Episode 11 - Sir Walter's Journey, A Genetic Map Of Britain

  • Horizon: Episode 12 - After The Flood

  • Horizon: Episode 13 - Against The Clock

  • Horizon: Episode 14 - Auschwitz, The Blueprints Of Genocide

  • Horizon: Episode 15 - Ulcer Wars

  • Horizon: Episode 16 - 30Th Anniversary, The Far Side

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - Deaf Whale, Dead Whale

  • Horizon: Episode 2 - Whispers Of Creation

  • Horizon: Episode 3 - The Predator

  • Horizon: Episode 4 - Close Encounters

  • Horizon: Episode 5 - Orange Sherbert Kisses

  • Horizon: Episode 6 - Designer Wines

  • Horizon: Episode 7 - Tibet, The Ice Mother

  • Horizon: Episode 8 - Russia's Deep Secrets

  • Horizon: Episode 9 - Bones Of Contention

  • Horizon: Episode 10 - Siamese Twins

  • Horizon: Episode 11 - Too Big Too Soon?

  • Horizon: Episode 12 - Farewell Fantastic Venus

  • Horizon: Episode 13 - Exodus

  • Horizon: Episode 14 - The Betrayers

  • Horizon: Episode 15 - Icon Earth

  • Horizon: Episode 16 - The I-Bomb

  • Horizon: Episode 17 - Foetal Attraction

  • Horizon: Episode 18 - Cracks In The Crust

  • Horizon: Episode 19 - Hearing Voices

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - Liar

  • Horizon: Episode 2 - The Human Laboratory

  • Horizon: Episode 3 - Nanotopia

  • Horizon: Episode 4 - Hunt For The Doomsday Asteroid

  • Horizon: Episode 5 - A Code In The Nose

  • Horizon: Episode 6 - AIDS, Behind Closed Doors

  • Horizon: Episode 7 - The Runaway Mountain

  • Horizon: Episode 8 - The Butchers Of Boxgrove

  • Horizon: Episode 9 - Fermat's Last Theorem

  • Horizon: Episode 10 - A Miracle For Cancer?

  • Horizon: Episode 11 - Nature's Numbers

  • Horizon: Episode 12 - The Gene Race

  • Horizon: Episode 13 - Masters Of The Ionosphere

  • Horizon: Episode 14 - Assault On The Male

  • Horizon: Episode 15 - Death By Design

  • Horizon: Episode 16 - The Planet Hunters

  • Horizon: Episode 17 - Einstein, The Miracle Year

  • Horizon: Episode 18 - Einstein: Fame

  • Horizon: Episode 19 - Inside Chernobyl Sarcophagus

  • Horizon: Episode 20 - Fall-Out From Chernobyl

  • Horizon: Episode 21 - The Science Of Star Trek

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - TV Is Dead, Long Live TV

  • Horizon: Episode 2 - Aliens From Mars

  • Horizon: Episode 3 - Living Death

  • Horizon: Episode 4 - The Time Lords

  • Horizon: Episode 5 - Noah's Flood

  • Horizon: Episode 6 - Psychedelic Science

  • Horizon: Episode 7 - Fat Cats, Thin Mice

  • Horizon: Episode 8 - The Shipwreck

  • Horizon: Episode 9 - Genius Of The Jet

  • Horizon: Episode 10 - Smallpox On Death Row

  • Horizon: Episode 11 - Silent Children, New Language

  • Horizon: Episode 12 - Turned On By Danger

  • Horizon: Episode 13 - A Perfect Oil Spill

  • Horizon: Episode 14 - The Great Balloon Race

  • Horizon: Episode 15 - Computers Don't Bite, Inside The Internet

  • Horizon: Episode 16 - Mars, Death Or Glory?

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - Crater Of Death

  • Horizon: Episode 2 - Mind Over Body

  • Horizon: Episode 3 - Out Of Asia

  • Horizon: Episode 4 - The Virus That Cures

  • Horizon: Episode 5 - The Man Who Lost His Body

  • Horizon: Episode 6 - Dawn Of The Clone Age

  • Horizon: Episode 7 - Crash

  • Horizon: Episode 8 - Saddam's Secrets

  • Horizon: Episode 9 - Dr Miller And The Islanders

  • Horizon: Episode 10 - The Rainmaker

  • Horizon: Episode 11 - Hopeful Monsters

  • Horizon: Episode 12 - Premature Babies, The Limits To Birth

  • Horizon: Episode 13 - Overkill

  • Horizon: Episode 14 - The Curse Of Vesuvius

  • Horizon: Episode 15 - Mir Mortals

  • Horizon: Episode 16 - The Computer That Ate Hollywood

  • Horizon: Episode 17 - Magic Bullet

  • Horizon: Episode 18 - The Gulf War Jigsaw

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - Sexual Chemistry

  • Horizon: Episode 2 - Chimps On Death Row

  • Horizon: Episode 3 - Dinosaurs In Your Garden

  • Horizon: Episode 4 - Mosquito!

  • Horizon: Episode 5 - The Life And Times Of Life And Time

  • Horizon: Episode 6 - Thalidomide, A Necessary Evil

  • Horizon: Episode 7 - Beyond A Joke

  • Horizon: Episode 8 - From Here To Infinity

  • Horizon: Episode 9 - Pandemic

  • Horizon: Episode 10 - Elephants Or Ivory

  • Horizon: Episode 11 - Electric Heart

  • Horizon: Episode 12 - Sudden Death

  • Horizon: Episode 13 - New Star In Orbit

  • Horizon: Episode 14 - New Asteroid Danger

  • Horizon: Episode 15 - Skeleton Key

  • Horizon: Episode 16 - Designer Babies

  • Horizon: Episode 17 - Wings Of Angels

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - Mistaken Identity

  • Horizon: Episode 2 - Volcanoes Of The Deep

  • Horizon: Episode 3 - Anatomy Of An Avalanche

  • Horizon: Episode 4 - The Midas Formula

  • Horizon: Episode 5 - Breath Of Life

  • Horizon: Episode 6 - Lost City Of Nasca

  • Horizon: Episode 7 - The Diamond Makers

  • Horizon: Episode 8 - Supervolcanos

  • Horizon: Episode 9 - Miracle In Orbit

  • Horizon: Episode 10 - Complete Obsession, Body Dysmorphia

  • Horizon: Episode 11 - Is GM Safe?

  • Horizon: Episode 12 - Planet Hunters

  • Horizon: Episode 13 - Science Of Addiction, Constant Craving

  • Horizon: Episode 14 - Moon Children

  • Horizon: Episode 15 - Inside The Internet

  • Horizon: Episode 16 - Science Zone, Aliens From Mars

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - Mega-tsunami: Wave of Destruction

  • Horizon: Episode 2 - Conjoined Twins

  • Horizon: Episode 3 - The Lost World Of Lake Vostok

  • Horizon: Episode 4 - Vanished, The Plane That Disappeared

  • Horizon: Episode 5 - The Secret Treasures Of Zeugma

  • Horizon: Episode 6 - The Valley Of Life Or Death

  • Horizon: Episode 7 - Extreme Dinosaurs

  • Horizon: Episode 8 - Supermassive Black Holes

  • Horizon: Episode 9 - The Boy Who Was Turned Into A Girl

  • Horizon: Episode 10 - Atlantis Reborn Again

  • Horizon: Episode 11 - Life on Mars

  • Horizon: Episode 12 - Destination Mars

  • Horizon: Episode 13 - The Mystery of the Miami Circle

  • Horizon: Episode 14 - The Missing Link

  • Horizon: Episode 15 - Killer Algae

  • Horizon: Episode 16 - Ecstasy and Agony

  • Horizon: Episode 17 - Snowball Earth

  • Horizon: Episode 18 - Taming the Problem Child

  • Horizon: Episode 19 - What Sank the Kursk?

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - The Mystery of the Persian Mummy

  • Horizon: Episode 2 - The Ape that Took Over the World

  • Horizon: Episode 3 - Life Blood

  • Horizon: Episode 4 - The Death Star

  • Horizon: Episode 5 - Cloning the First Human

  • Horizon: Episode 6 - Helike - The Real Atlantis

  • Horizon: Episode 7 - Volcano Hell

  • Horizon: Episode 8 - Fatbusters

  • Horizon: Episode 9 - The Lost Pyramids of Caral

  • Horizon: Episode 10 - Death of the Iceman

    In September 1991 two hikers made a sensational discovery - a frozen body high in the mountains, near the border between Austria and Italy. It turned out to be 5,300 years old, the oldest frozen mummy ever found. Named Ötzi the Iceman after the Ötztal area where he was found, he became a worldwide sensation. The body was taken to Austria where scientists soon got to work on him. They analysed his bone density to find out how old he was (in his 40s, an advanced age for the time) and examined his wonderfully preserved belongings. The cause of his death remained a mystery. Now archaeologists are being joined by forensic scientists to investigate this unique case and new research has revealed a shocking answer. Frozen in time The investigation into Ötzi's death started at the scene of discovery. By examining photos which had been taken at the site, Austrian archaeologist Konrad Spindler worked out the layout. He was particularly intrigued by the position of the Iceman's copper axe, which was found propped up against a rock. He believed that this must have been placed in that position by Ötzi himself which meant that everything at the site had been preserved in the position it was when Ötzi died. His body was slumped face down on the ground, his cap lay nearby just as if it had fallen from his head. Scientists also wanted to know when he died so they examined the ice in which he'd been found. This contained pollen that they could identify as coming from autumn-flowering plants, so they concluded that Ötzi had died in the autumn. Together, this evidence implied that the Iceman might have got caught in a storm and died of hypothermia. The Disaster Theory Then the scientists looked inside the iceman using X-rays and CAT (Computer Assisted Tomography) scans. They saw what looked like unhealed rib fractures. So Spindler came up with what he called his disaster theory. He believed Ötzi was a shepherd who, one autumn, was returning to his home village with his animals. When he got there he became involved in some kind of argument or battle. He suffered a severe injury to his chest, fracturing his ribs, but managed to escape. He fled into the mountains and made it to the top, but by then he was exhausted from his injuries. He lay down to rest in a sheltered gully where he died of hypothermia and was buried in ice. The theory seemed to make sense, but it would not go unchallenged for long. In 1998, Ötzi was transferred to Italy since the body had actually been found just inside the Italian border. There the iceman was placed on display in a specially built museum in the town of Bolzano. To put the finishing touch to their display, the museum contacted forensic pathologist Peter Vanezis to reconstruct Ötzi's face, based on the shape of the skull. Vanezis normally works from the skull itself, but in this case, of course, that was impossible. So using the 3D CAT scan data and a rapid prototyping machine, the Austrian team created a detailed life-size replica of the Iceman's skull and gave this to Vanezis. He then used a laser to scan the skull into his facial reconstruction system. This measures the proportions of the skull and shapes a generic face to match. This allowed him to recreate Ötzi's face at last. Re-examining the evidence Vanezis also wanted to look again at the theory of Ötzi's death, to question assumptions that the archaeologists had made. More and more evidence was questioning the disaster theory. An examination of the contents of Ötzi's intestine found hop hornbeam pollen. This pollen was incredibly well preserved - the cell contents still intact. This could only mean that it had been consumed very soon after the flowering of the plant just before the Iceman died. And since the hop hornbeam only flowers between March and June he must have actually died in spring. Also, evidence from the body and objects showed that the site had melted at least once and so things weren't necessarily in the same position. And finally, new examinations of the ribs showed that they hadn't been fractured before death - but been bent out of shape after death. Scientists seemed to be back to square one. A Shocking Discovery It seemed his death might be shrouded in mystery forever. Then in June 2001, his new custodians, the Italians, decided to X-ray the body again. A local hospital radiologist noticed what looked like a foreign object near the shoulder, a shadow in the shape of an arrow. When they looked at its density they found it was denser than bone, it was the same density as flint. They'd discovered a stone arrowhead embedded in Ötzi's shoulder, which had been missed despite 10 years of intensive study. Now scientists can tell a new story of the Iceman's death. Ötzi was attacked and managed to flee. As he ran he was shot in the back with an arrow. He pulled out the arrow shaft but the head remained stuck in his shoulder. He reached the top of the mountains but was now exhausted and weakened from bleeding. He could go no further, lay down and died. Although this story fits the latest results, there are still many unanswered questions. Scientists hope soon to conduct an autopsy to remove the arrowhead and only then will we be able to say for certain what killed Ötzi. The Iceman may still be hiding more secrets.
  • Horizon: Episode 11 - Parallel Universes

    Everything you're about to read here seems impossible and insane, beyond science fiction. Yet it's all true. Scientists now believe there may really be a parallel universe - in fact, there may be an infinite number of parallel universes, and we just happen to live in one of them. These other universes contain space, time and strange forms of exotic matter. Some of them may even contain you, in a slightly different form. Astonishingly, scientists believe that these parallel universes exist less than one millimetre away from us. In fact, our gravity is just a weak signal leaking out of another universe into ours. The same but different For years parallel universes were a staple of the Twilight Zone. Science fiction writers loved to speculate on the possible other universes which might exist. In one, they said, Elvis Presley might still be alive or in another the British Empire might still be going strong. Serious scientists dismissed all this speculation as absurd. But now it seems the speculation wasn't absurd enough. Parallel universes really do exist and they are much stranger than even the science fiction writers dared to imagine. Greater dimensions It all started when superstring theory, hyperspace and dark matter made physicists realise that the three dimensions we thought described the Universe weren't enough. There are actually 11 dimensions. By the time they had finished they'd come to the conclusion that our Universe is just one bubble among an infinite number of membranous bubbles which ripple as they wobble through the eleventh dimension. A creative touch Now imagine what might happen if two such bubble universes touched. Neil Turok from Cambridge, Burt Ovrut from the University of Pennsylvania and Paul Steinhardt from Princeton believe that has happened. The result? A very big bang indeed and a new universe was born - our Universe. The idea has shocked the scientific community; it turns the conventional Big Bang theory on its head. It may well be that the Big Bang wasn't really the beginning of everything after all. Time and space all existed before it. In fact Big Bangs may happen all the time. Of course this extraordinary story about the origin of our Universe has one alarming implication. If a collision started our Universe, could it happen again? Anything is possible in this extra-dimensional cosmos. Perhaps out there in space there is another universe heading directly towards us - it may only be a matter of time before we collide.
  • Horizon: Episode 12 - The Dinosaur that Fooled the World

    In the mid 1800s, when Charles Darwin published his theory of evolution, one species of animal remained a mystery; where did birds fit on his evolutionary tree? Several years later his friend and colleague, Thomas Henry Huxley, came up with an answer. Huxley had recently examined a new fossil from southern Germany called Archaeopteryx which was causing considerable excitement in palaeontological circles. There were clear signs of feathers and it was obvious this was the earliest fossil evidence of a bird ever found. Huxley noticed something else as well. To him it looked as though the skeleton bore a striking similarity to that of a family of meat eating dinosaurs known as therapods. Transitional trail In the 1860s, on the basis of this observation, he announced a new theory; birds must have evolved from dinosaurs. The theory ignited what was to become one of the biggest controversies in palaeontology. Could Huxley possibly be right; how could a large, land-bound creature like a dinosaur have ever evolved into something as light and sleek as a bird? Many questioned the accuracy of Huxley's observations and ever since there has been a search for further fossil evidence to confirm the theory; a transitional animal which would incontrovertibly show how, in one creature, birds had evolved from dinosaurs. It has become one of the big missing links in palaeontology. In Spring 1999, at the Tucson Gem and Fossil Fair in Arizona, an American collector came across a new Chinese fossil which seemed to be just this transitional animal. It had the head and upper body of a bird but the tail of a dinosaur. It was called Archaeoraptor or 'ancient hunter'. Chinese finds Throughout the 1990s a number of important fossils emerged from China showing an apparent relationship between dinosaurs and birds. Practically all come from a region in the north of the country called Liaoning, one of the richest fossil areas in the world. Here, 130 million years ago, volcanic eruptions buried a wetland once teeming in wildlife. Many of the fossils have been magnificently preserved in the fine silt; some even have the remains of soft tissue attached to them. It was here, in 1996, that Chinese scientists found a creature they called Sinosauropteryx, an animal which bore many similarities to a dinosaur but appeared to have been covered in a feathery like coat. Two years later a joint Chinese/American team found an even more striking creature; a dinosaur like animal with very clear feathers which they called Caudipteryx. Other similar feathered dinosaurs followed, including in 1999, an important specimen called Sinornithosurus. Yet to those who questioned the relationship between dinosaurs and birds, these fabulous finds raised as many questions as they answered. Were the feather-like markings really signs of feathers, or were they something else? And were the skeletons really those of dinosaurs or were they, in fact, the skeletons of new, as yet unidentified, birds? What was still missing was the piece of evidence which would satisfy everybody. The best of both worlds The new Archaeoraptor fossil, also from the Liaoning region of China, seemed to be just that. Here, in one animal, was a unique range of dinosaur and bird features. It had the skull and upper body of a bird, but the teeth and hands of a dinosaur. It also had the legs of a bird but the tail of a dinosaur. It was the most complete set of transitional features ever found in one creature. In November 1999 National Geographic Magazine gave it a special mention in an article about the origins of birds, calling it, "a true missing link.". The debate, started by Thomas Huxley in the 1860s, seemed to have been resolved. Yet within months, new finds in China showed Archaeoraptor to be an extremely clever fake. The head and upper body of a hitherto unidentified bird had been glued onto the tail of a previously unknown dinosaur. It was a journalistic disaster for National Geographic Magazine. The fossil, however, was anything but a disaster for palaeontology. By an extraordinary stroke of good luck, as scientists in China and America examined the head and tail separately, they found that both were, in their own right, unique and extremely valuable specimens. Both, in their different ways, contained powerful evidence that birds had evolved from dinosaurs.
  • Horizon: Episode 13 - The Fall of the World Trade Center

    The World Trade Center was built on revolutionary design principles. It turned conventional architectural and structural techniques on their head. Built from a thin web of steel, its design was efficient, cost-effective and would inspire a new wave in modern building techniques. The result was two towers that were both lightweight and strong. When they were completed they were the tallest in the world. They were also milestones of architecture for another reason. The two towers were the first skyscrapers explicitly designed to withstand being hit by a jet plane. The impact Although they had considered an aircraft impact, the designers of the World Trade towers had not anticipated the effect of an aeroplane's fuel load. British-born survivor Paul Neal tells how he smelt jet fuel rushing through the lift shafts close to his desk. "I recognised it because I'm a private pilot. I recall smelling it and instantly dismissed it as being illogical because it didn't have any place in the World Trade Center." Survivor, Bill Forney, recalls the instant that the 767 aircraft hit the North Tower one floor above where he was sitting. "The building started shaking. It lurched back and forth. It was the first time that I had truly thought that I might die. After a terrifying six to ten movements back and forth it was over and it was done." Problems with drywall The World Trade Center had ultra-lightweight floors, and used the latest fireproof 'drywall' to protect the stairwells and lift shafts. Much of this internal structure seems to have been vaporized when the planes crashed, exposing the underlying steel to the intense heat of multiple fires. Brian Clark was one of the only four survivors from both towers to escape from above where the planes hit. He describess clambering over the shattered walls to break through a smoke-filled stairwell to get out. "Drywall had been blown off and was lying up against the stair railing." he says, "We had to shovel it aside." Another survivor, window cleaner Jan Demczur, found the drywall so soft that he was able to dig through it with a squeegee to break out of a lift he was trapped in. The South Tower The two towers responded differently to the initial impacts, because there were crucial differences between the collisions. The South Tower, struck second, was hit lower, and the damaged zone of the tower then had to support a much greater weight of building above it . Rather than being hit head-on, the South Tower was hit at an angle. The plane wreckage scraped along the inside of the east wall and piled up in the northeast corner. Here, the fire burned intensely. At the South Tower's inner core, one escape stair was left intact - the one furthest from the plane's path. Even then, only four people, one of them Brian Clark, managed to get down it. At the northeast corner and along the east wall, the connections between the floors and the outer wall began to break as the floors sagged in the heat. The floors were an essential part of the structure, bracing both the outer walls and the inner core. Already weakened by the impact and now unbraced, the outer wall columns of the South Tower could not support the weight above them. At 9.59am Eastern Time, they snapped. The entire top third of the tower then lurched to the north and east; the floors inside the rest of the tower piled down onto those below. The downward wave of destruction - a progressive collapse - was then unstoppable. The North Tower Meanwhile, the North Tower, which had been hit first, was still standing. The core of the Tower had been hit head-on, and the core had been left mostly undamaged by the impact. However, the direct hit cut off all the escape routes without exception. Meanwhile, the fire inside the North Tower was spread around the core. Again, connections between floors and columns started to fail in the heat, but here in the North Tower, it was the connections at the core that gave way first. Without the floors to brace it, the core could not stand alone. 29 minutes after the first collapse, the core in the North Tower collapsed vertically, pulling the rest of the tower down with it. The implications of the Twin Towers collapse are disturbing. Whether anything can be done to make modern lightweight skyscrapers more robust in the aftermath of 11 September is a vital question that must now be answered.
  • Horizon: Episode 14 - Archimedes' Secret

  • Horizon: Episode 15 - The Mystery Of The Jurassic

  • Horizon: Episode 16 - Killer Lakes

  • Horizon: Episode 17 - The A6 Murder

  • Horizon: Episode 18 - The England Patient

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - Horizon Revisited, A Tale Of Two Feathers

  • Horizon: Episode 2 - Horizon Revisited, Mega Tsunami: Coming To A Beach Near You

  • Horizon: Episode 3 - Freak Wave

  • Horizon: Episode 4 - Stone Age Columbus

  • Horizon: Episode 5 - Homeopathy, The Test

  • Horizon: Episode 6 - Horizon Revisited, Back To The Dark Ages

  • Horizon: Episode 7 - The Day The Earth Nearly Died

  • Horizon: Episode 8 - Horizon Revisited, Dawn Of The Dinosaurs

  • Horizon: Episode 9 - The Secret Of El Dorado

  • Horizon: Episode 10 - The Mystery Of Easter Island

  • Horizon: Episode 11 - Living Nightmare

  • Horizon: Episode 12 - Averting Armageddon

  • Horizon: Episode 13 - Dirty Bomb

  • Horizon: Episode 14 - Sexual Chemistry

  • Horizon: Episode 15 - The Day We Learned To Think

  • Horizon: Episode 16 - Horizon Revisited, You Do As You Are Told: Jonathan Miller And The Milgram Experiment

  • Horizon: Episode 17 - Trial And Error, The Rise And Fall Of Gene Therapy

  • Horizon: Episode 18 - Earthquake Storms

  • Horizon: Episode 19 - Horizon Revisited, The Human Genome Project

  • Horizon: Episode 20 - Horizon Revisited, Michael Adler On AIDS

  • Horizon: Episode 21 - Life On Mars

  • Horizon: Episode 22 - The Secret Life Of Caves

  • Horizon: Episode 23 - God On The Brain

  • Horizon: Episode 24 - Flight 587

  • Horizon: Episode 25 - SARS, The True Story

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - The Big Chill

  • Horizon: Episode 2 - The Bible Code

  • Horizon: Episode 3 - Last Flight Of Columbia

  • Horizon: Episode 4 - The Hunt For The AIDS Vaccine

  • Horizon: Episode 5 - Percy Pilcher's Flying Machine

  • Horizon: Episode 6 - Time Trip

  • Horizon: Episode 7 - The Demonic Ape

  • Horizon: Episode 8 - Moscow Theatre Siege

  • Horizon: Episode 9 - The Atkins Diet

  • Horizon: Episode 10 - Secrets Of The Star Disc

  • Horizon: Episode 11 - The Dark Secret Of Hendrik Schön

  • Horizon: Episode 12 - Thalidomide, A Second Chance?

  • Horizon: Episode 13 - Diamond Labs

  • Horizon: Episode 14 - T Rex, Warrior Or Wimp?

  • Horizon: Episode 15 - Project Poltergeist

  • Horizon: Episode 16 - The Truth Of Troy

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - The Truth About Vitamins

  • Horizon: Episode 2 - King Solomon's Tablet Of Stone

  • Horizon: Episode 3 - Derek Tastes Of Earwax

  • Horizon: Episode 4 - What Really Killed The Dinosaurs?

  • Horizon: Episode 5 - Making Millions The Easy Way

  • Horizon: Episode 6 - Saturn, Lord Of The Rings

  • Horizon: Episode 7 - The Hunt For The Supertwister

  • Horizon: Episode 8 - Dr Money And The Boy With No Penis

  • Horizon: Episode 9 - Global Dimming

  • Horizon: Episode 10 - Einstein's Unfinished Symphony

  • Horizon: Episode 11 - Einstein's Equation Of Life And Death

  • Horizon: Episode 12 - Living With ADHD

  • Horizon: Episode 13 - Neanderthal

  • Horizon: Episode 14 - An Experiment To Save The World

  • Horizon: Episode 15 - Who's Afraid Of Designer Babies?

  • Horizon: Episode 16 - The Lost Civilisation Of Peru

  • Horizon: Episode 17 - The Next Megaquake

  • Horizon: Episode 18 - Does The MMR Jab Cause Autism?

  • Horizon: Episode 19 - Malaria, Defeating The Curse

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - Tsunami – Naming the Dead

  • Horizon: Episode 2 - The Hawking Paradox

  • Horizon: Episode 3 - The Mystery Of The Human Hobbit

  • Horizon: Episode 4 - The Doctor Who Makes People Walk Again?

  • Horizon: Episode 5 - Can Fish Make My Child Smart?

  • Horizon: Episode 6 - Madagascar, A Treetop Odyssey

  • Horizon: Episode 7 - Titan, A Place Like Home?

  • Horizon: Episode 8 - The 7/7 Bombers, A Psychological Investigation

  • Horizon: Episode 9 - The Ghost In Your Genes

  • Horizon: Episode 10 - Life And Times Of El Nino

  • Horizon: Episode 11 - Space Tourists

  • Horizon: Episode 12 - Waiting For A Heartbeat

  • Horizon: Episode 13 - A War On Science

  • Horizon: Episode 14 - The Lost City Of New Orleans

  • Horizon: Episode 15 - Most Of Our Universe Is Missing

  • Horizon: Episode 16 - The Woman Who Thinks Like A Cow

  • Horizon: Episode 17 - The Genius Sperm Bank

  • Horizon: Episode 18 - Bye Bye, Planet Pluto

  • Horizon: Episode 19 - We Love Cigarettes

  • Horizon: Episode 20 - Nuclear Nightmares

  • Horizon: Episode 21 - Tutankhamun's Fireball

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - Survivers Guide to Plane Crashes

  • Horizon: Episode 2 - Chimps are People Too

  • Horizon: Episode 3 - The Worlds First Face Transplant

  • Horizon: Episode 4 - Human v2.0

  • Horizon: Episode 5 - The Great Robot Race

  • Horizon: Episode 6 - Pandemic

  • Horizon: Episode 7 - We are the Aliens

  • Horizon: Episode 8 - My Pet Dinosaur

  • Horizon: Episode 9 - The Elephant's Guide to Sex

  • Horizon: Episode 10 - Prof Regan's Beauty Parlour

  • Horizon: Episode 11 - Mad but Glad

  • Horizon: Episode 12 - Moon for Sale

  • Horizon: Episode 13 - Battle of the Brains

  • Horizon: Episode 14 - Skyscraper Fire Fighters

  • Horizon: Episode 15 - The Six Billion Dollar Experiment

  • Horizon: Episode 16 - How to commit the perfect Murder

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - Everest: Doctors in the Death Zone - Part 1

    Horizon follows former Conservative MP, Michael Portillo as he pushes his body to the brink of death in an investigation into the science of execution. The only way to see just how humane the various methods of killing are, is to experiance them all yourself.
  • Horizon: Episode 2 - Everest: Doctors in the Death Zone - Part 2

    Horizon re-creates a controversial sensory deprivation experiment. Six ordinary people are taken to a nuclear bunker and left alone for 48 hours.
  • Horizon: Episode 3 - How to Kill a Human Being

    Newton thought that gravity was powered by God. Einstein failed to fully undestand it. Now, Horizon follows Dr Brain Cox on a trip around America to find out what is wrong with gravity and why it is the way it is.
  • Horizon: Episode 4 - Total Isolation

    If alcolhol was classified under the ABC drug system, it would be class A and ilegal. Tabacco would be rated class B. In this episode, Horizon looks at some recent research on drug classification - a controversal new list which rates alcohol, solvents and tobacco (all unclassified drugs) as more dangerous than ecstasy, 4-MTA and LSD (all class A drugs). The scientists involved, including members of the government's top advisory committee on drug classification, think the current ABC system is arbitrary and not based on any scientific evidence. Drug policies have are the same as 40 years ago, so should they be reformed in the light of new research?
  • Horizon: Episode 5 - What on Earth Is Wrong with Gravity?

  • Horizon: Episode 6 - Is Alcohol Worse Than Ecstasy?

    You may not have heard of the remote Japanese island of Okinawa, the town of Loma Linda or the mountains of Sardinia but if you want live longer, these are the places to be. In these unique places, scientists have dedicated their lives to trying to uncover their secrets. Horizon takes a trip around the globe to meet the people who can show us all how to live longer, healthier lives.
  • Horizon: Episode 7 - How to Make Better Decisions

    Friendly bacteria, superfoods, cholesterol busting spreads, 99% germ free, whiter than white...it's almost impossible to find a product in the supermarket today that doesn't come with impressive claims...a scientific claims, but do they actually do what they say? Are they worth the price? Are they worth a place in Prof. Regan's shopping trolly?
  • Horizon: Episode 8 - How to Live to 101

    For centuries, humans have looked up into the night sky and asked: are we alone? For fifty years, SETI has been trying to find out. There are a couple of hundred billion stars in our galaxy at least half of them proberbly have planets. That 100 billion planetary systems. There are 8 planets in our so lets there are about 5 in the others thats half a trillion planets in our galaxy and there are 100 billion other galaxies. At least some of those planets must have life? Horizon looks into new technologies that are helping to identify Earth like planet in other systems so that SETI (Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence) can essentially be given a phone book.
  • Horizon: Episode 9 - Are We Alone in the Universe?

    Horizon investigates the rapidly growing industry that supplies human bodies and has seen a cadaver sell for as much as $250,000. Modern medical revolution has fuelled a black market trade in stolen body parts which includes among its victims the veteran broadcaster Alistair Cooke. After his death in 2004 his body was taken by a body snatching ring.
  • Horizon: Episode 10 - How Much Is Your Dead Body Worth?

  • Horizon: Episode 11 - How Does Your Memory Work?

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - The President's Guide to Science

  • Horizon: Episode 2 - How Mad Are You? Part 1

  • Horizon: Episode 3 - How Mad Are You? Part 2

  • Horizon: Episode 4 - Jimmy's GM Food Fight

  • Horizon: Episode 5 - Do You Know What Time It Is?

  • Horizon: Episode 6 - Allergy Planet

  • Horizon: Episode 7 - Where's My Robot?

  • Horizon: Episode 8 - Why Are Thin People Not Fat?

  • Horizon: Episode 9 - Cannabis: The Evil Weed?

  • Horizon: Episode 10 - Why Do We Dream?

  • Horizon: Episode 11 - Can We Make a Star on Earth?

  • Horizon: Episode 12 - The Secret Life of Your Bodyclock

  • Horizon: Episode 13 - What's the Problem with Nudity?

  • Horizon: Episode 14 - How to Survive a Disaster

  • Horizon: Episode 15 - Who Do You Want Your Child to Be?

  • Horizon: Episode 16 - Why Can't We Predict Earthquakes?

  • Horizon: Episode 17 - Alan and Marcus Go Forth and Multiply

  • Horizon: Episode 18 - How Violent Are You?

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - Do I Drink Too Much?

  • Horizon: Episode 2 - The Secret You

  • Horizon: Episode 3 - Fix Me

  • Horizon: Episode 4 - Who's Afraid Of A Big Black Hole?

  • Horizon: Episode 5 - Why Do We Talk?

  • Horizon: Episode 6 - How Long Is A Piece Of String?

  • Horizon: Episode 7 - How Many People Can Live on Planet Earth?

  • Horizon: Episode 8 - The Secret Life of the Dog

  • Horizon: Episode 9 - Why Do Viruses Kill?

  • Horizon: Episode 10 - Pill Poppers

  • Horizon: Episode 11 - Don't Grow Old

  • Horizon: Episode 12 - To Infinity and Beyond...

  • Horizon: Episode 13 - What Makes a Genius?

  • Horizon: Episode 14 - Did Cooking Make Us Human?

  • Horizon: Episode 15 - Is Everything We Know About The Universe Wrong?

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - Back from the Dead

  • Horizon: Episode 2 - The Death of the Oceans?

  • Horizon: Episode 3 - What Happened Before the Big Bang?

  • Horizon: Episode 4 - Is Seeing Believing?

  • Horizon: Episode 5 - Miracle Cure? A Decade of the Human Genome

  • Horizon: Episode 6 - Asteroids - The Good, the Bad and the Ugly

  • Horizon: Episode 7 - Deepwater Disaster - The Untold Story

  • Horizon: Episode 8 - What is One Degree?

  • Horizon: Episode 9 - What is Reality?

  • Horizon: Episode 10 - Science Under Attack

  • Horizon: Episode 11 - The Secret World of Pain

  • Horizon: Episode 12 - Surviving a Car Crash

  • Horizon: Episode 13 - How to Mend a Broken Heart

  • Horizon: Episode 14 - Are We Still Evolving?

  • Horizon: Episode 15 - Predators in Your Backyard

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - Do You See What I See

  • Horizon: Episode 2 - Seeing Stars

  • Horizon: Episode 3 - The Nine Months that Made You

  • Horizon: Episode 4 - The Core

  • Horizon: Episode 5 - Are You Good or Evil?

  • Horizon: Episode 6 - Is Nuclear Power Safe?

  • Horizon: Episode 7 - Playing God

  • Horizon: Episode 8 - The Truth About Exercise

  • Horizon: Episode 9 - Solar Storms: The Threat to Planet Earth

  • Horizon: Episode 10 - Out of Control?

  • Horizon: Episode 11 - The Truth about Fat

  • Horizon: Episode 12 - Global Weirding

  • Horizon: Episode 13 - The Hunt for A.I.

  • Horizon: Episode 14 - Defeating Cancer

  • Horizon: Episode 15 - The Transit of Venus: A Horizon Special

  • Horizon: Episode 1 - The Truth About Looking Young

  • Horizon: Episode 2 - Mission to Mars

  • Horizon: Episode 3 - Eat, Fast and Live Longer

  • Horizon: Episode 4 - How Big Is the Universe?

  • Horizon: Episode 5 - How Small Is the Universe?

  • Horizon: Episode 6 - Defeating the Superbugs

  • Horizon: Episode 7 - The Truth About Meteors